Cross-Reactive Antibody Responses to Novel H5Nx Influenza Viruses Following Homologous and Heterologous Prime-Boost Vaccination with a Prepandemic Stockpiled A(H5N1) Vaccine in Humans
Recently, novel highly pathogenic avian influenza H5Nx viruses (clade 22.214.171.124) caused outbreaks in US poultry. We evaluated the potential of a stockpiled A(H5N1) A/Anhui/1/2005 (clade 2.3.4) vaccine to elicit cross-reactive antibody responses to these emerging viruses. Sera from subjects who received 2 doses of MF59-adjuvanted A/Anhui/1/2005, or 1 dose of MF59-adjuvanted A/Anhui/1/2005 following priming with a clade 1 vaccine were characterized by microneutralization assays and modified hemagglutination inhibition (HI) assays. Only heterologous prime-boost vaccination induced modest cross-reactive HI antibody responses to H5Nx viruses. Heterologous prime-boost may provide a more effective vaccination strategy to broaden the antibody responses to emerging viruses.