Clinical Outcomes and Survival in Pediatric Patients Initiating Chronic Dialysis: A Report of the NAPRTCS Registry
BACKGROUND: The 2011 annual report of the North American Pediatric Renal Transplant Cooperative Study (NAPRTCS) registry comprises data on 6482 dialysis patients over the past 20 years of the registry.
METHODS: The study compared clinical parameters and patient survival in the first 10 years of the registry (1992-2001) with the last decade of the registry (2002-2011).
RESULTS: There was a significant increase in hemodialysis as the initiating dialysis modality in the most recent cohort (42% vs. 36%, p < 0.001). Patients in the later cohort were less likely to have a hemoglobin <10 g/dl [odds ratio (OR) 0.68; confidence interval (CI) 0.58-0.81; p < 0.001] and height z-score <2 standard deviations (SD) below average (OR 0.68, CI 0.59-0.78, p < 0.0001). They were also more likely to have a parathyroid hormone (PTH) level two times above the upper limits of normal (OR 1.39, CI 1.21-1.60, p < 0.0001). Although hypertension was common regardless of era, patients in the 2002-2011 group were less likely to have blood pressure >90th percentile (OR 1.39, CI 1.21-1.60, p < 0.0001), and a significant improvement in survival at 36 months after dialysis initiation was observed in the 2002-2011 cohort compared with the 1992-2001 cohort (95% vs. 90%, respectively). Cardiopulmonary causes were the most common cause of death in both cohorts. Young age, growth deficit, and black race were poor predictors of survival.
CONCLUSIONS: The survival of pediatric patients on chronic dialysis has improved over two decades of dialysis registry data, specifically for children <1year.