Antibody Responses Among Adolescent Females Receiving Two or Three Quadrivalent Human Papillomavirus Vaccine Doses at Standard and Prolonged Intervals
BACKGROUND: The originally recommended dosing schedule, 0, 2, 6 months, for the 3-dose quadrivalent human papillomavirus vaccine (4vHPV) was often not followed, resulting in longer than recommended intervals between doses and interest in the effect of prolonged intervals. Recent two-dose recommendations require investigations into the effect of delaying dose 2.
METHODS: This multi-site, prospective study enrolled healthy 9-17 year old girls (n = 1321) on the day of or within 28 days following a third dose of 4vHPV vaccination. Antibody titers to 4vHPV types were measured at one and six months post-dose 3 from all participants and post-dose 2 from participants who were on time for dose 3. To compare antibody responses, participants were categorized into groups: second and third doses on time (control group); on-time dose 2, substantially late dose 3 (group 2); substantially late dose 2, on-time dose 3 (group 3); both doses substantially late (group 4). Analyses compared age-adjusted geometric mean titers (GMTs) at one-month and six-months post-dose 3, effect of delaying the second dose, and two versus three doses as well as post-dose 2 GMTs, stratified by age.
RESULTS: Compared to on-time dosing, one-month post-dose 3 GMTs were non-inferior in groups 2, 3, and 4 and were superior in group 2. Six month post-dose 3 GMTs were superior in groups 2, 3, and 4 for each genotype, except HPV 18 in group 3. Age-adjusted post does 2 titers were significantly lower than post-dose 3 titers when dose 2 was on time but were significantly higher when dose 2 was substantially late. Participants ≥15 years old had no difference in post-dose 2 titers compared to <15 year olds when dose 2 was substantially delayed.
CONCLUSIONS: Prolonged intervals between doses do not appear to diminish and may enhance antibody response to 4vHPV. ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT00524745).