Biomarkers of Inflammation Correlate with Clinical Scoring Indices in HIV-Infected Kenyans.
Background: In high-income countries, inflammation has been associated with increased morbidity and mortality in HIV-infected individuals despite treatment with antiretroviral therapy (ART). However, these findings may not be generalizable to low-income settings.
Methods: In this cross-sectional study, multivariable linear regression was used to compare 28 inflammatory biomarker levels in HIV-infected and uninfected participants. Correlations between biomarkers and VACS index, FIB-4 score, and Framingham risk score were assessed.
Results: Plasma samples from 304 Kenyans were analyzed. Compared to HIV uninfected controls, virologically-suppressed HIV-infected participants had higher levels of CCL5, CXCL10, FABP2, FASLG, MMP1, MMP7, sCD14, and sCD163 and lower MMP9 (P < 0.01). CD4+/HLA-DR+CD38+ (rho 0.32, P < 0.001), sCD14 (rho 0.25, P = 0.004), and sCD163 (rho 0.24, P = 0.006) were correlated with the VACS index. FABP2 was positively correlated (rho 0.28, P = 0.002), while MMP1 (rho -0.32, P < 0.001) and MMP2 (rho -0.28, P = 0.002) were inversely correlated with the FIB-4 score.
Conclusions: Differences in biomarker levels exist between well-controlled HIV-infected participants on ART and uninfected controls. Some biomarkers are correlated to scoring indices predictive of morbidity and mortality. These biomarkers could serve as prognostic indicators and inform therapeutic development.