Cytokine profiles in seronegative volunteers immunized with a recombinant canarypox and gp120 prime-boost HIV-1 vaccine. NIAID AIDS Vaccine Evaluation Group.
OBJECTIVES: To study memory T cell proliferative responses and cytokine profiles induced in HIV-1 seronegative volunteers immunized with a live recombinant canarypox vector expressing HIV-1 antigens (ALVAC-HIV) and boosted with a recombinant gp120 subunit vaccine.
DESIGN: HIV-specific T cell proliferative responses and cytokines were measured 2 weeks after vaccination. Cytokines secreted by T helper 1 cells (Th1) [interleukin (IL)-2 and interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma)] and T helper 2 (Th2) cells (IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, and IL-10) were assessed both at the mRNA and the protein level.
METHODS: Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were stimulated in vitro with HIV antigens. Subsequently, T cell proliferation was measured in a standard lymphoproliferation assay; secreted cytokines were measured using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and upregulation of cytokine mRNA was measured using reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction.
RESULTS: All individuals who had received ALVAC-HIV followed by the protein vaccine exhibited HIV-1-specific T cell proliferative responses. Moreover, the PBMC of all prime-boost vaccinated individuals produced detectable IFN-gamma and IL-10 in response to stimulation with HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein antigens; 83% also had detectable levels of IL-2 and IL-6, 71% had detectable levels of IL-4, and 86% had detectable levels of IL-5.
CONCLUSIONS: These data indicate that this vaccination regimen was inducing both Th1- and Th2-type responses to HIV-1 envelope antigens. This prime-boost vaccination approach elicited T cell help for the generation of cytotoxic T lymphocyte responses as well as help for antibody production and so promises to generate a broad HIV-1-specific immune response.