Does Allograft Failure Impact Infection Risk on Peritoneal Dialysis: A North American Pediatric Renal Trials and Collaborative Studies Study
Background and objectives
Several adult studies report that patients returning to peritoneal dialysis after allograft failure have increased infection-related morbidity. The impact of allograft failure on infection risk in children is uncertain. We compared peritonitis-free survival between pediatric peritoneal dialysis patients with prior allograft failure and those who were transplant naive.
Design, setting, participants, & measurements
We studied patients, 2-21 years of age, who initiated peritoneal dialysis from January 1, 1992, to December 31, 2007, in the North American Pediatric Renal Trials and Collaborative Studies registry. Demographic characteristics were compared between transplant naive and allograft failure patients using a chi-squared statistic. Peritonitis-free survival was compared between the two groups using Kaplan-Meier estimates. A Cox regression analysis was performed to adjust for covariates, which impact risk of peritonitis. Results Of 2829 patients on peritoneal dialysis, 445 had a prior history of allograft failure and 2384 did not (transplant naive). Demographic characteristics including age at dialysis initiation, race, primary renal disease, and era of dialysis initiation were significantly different between the two groups. Peritonitis-free survival was poorer for the allograft failure group. After covariate adjustment, allograft failure showed borderline significance as a factor predictive of peritonitis.
Children initiating peritoneal dialysis after allograft failure may experience a slightly higher infection risk.