Cognitive and Academic Outcomes after Pediatric Liver Transplantation: Functional Outcomes Group (FOG) Results
Year of Publication
Sorensen, L; Neighbors, K; Martz, K; Zelko, F; Bucuvalas, J; Alonso, E
Am J Transplant
Child; Cognition; Cognition Disorders; Cohort Studies; Educational Status; Executive Function; Female; Humans; Intelligence Tests; Learning Disorders; liver transplantation; Longitudinal Studies; Male; Preschool; Research Support NIH Extramural
This multicenter study examined prevalence of cognitive and academic delays in children following liver transplant (LT). One hundred and forty-four patients ages 5-7 and 2 years post-LT were recruited through the SPLIT consortium and administered the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence, 3rd Edition (WPPSI-III), the Bracken Basic Concept Scale, Revised (BBCS-R), and the Wide Range Achievement Test, 4th edition (WRAT-4). Parents and teachers completed the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF). Participants performed significantly below test norms on intelligence quotient (IQ) and achievement measures (Mean WPPSI-III Full Scale IQ = 94.7 +/- 13.5; WRAT-4 Reading = 92.7 +/- 17.2; WRAT-4 Math = 93.1 +/- 15.4; p < 0001). Twenty-six percent of patients (14% expected) had 'mild to moderate' IQ delays (Full Scale IQ = 71-85) and 4% (2% expected) had 'serious' delays (Full Scale IQ = 70; p < 0.0001). Reading and/or math scores were weaker than IQ in 25%, suggesting learning disability, compared to 7% expected by CDC statistics (p < 0.0001). Executive deficits were noted on the BRIEF, especially by teacher report (Global Executive Composite = 58; p < 0.001). Results suggest a higher prevalence of cognitive and academic delays and learning problems in pediatric LT recipients compared to the normal population.