Seroprevalence of Cytomegalovirus (CMV) and Risk Factors for Infection in Adolescent Males
Year of Publication
Stadler, L; Bernstein, D; Callahan, T; Ferreira, J; Simone, G; Edwards, K; Stanberry, L; Rosenthal, S
Clinical Infectious Diseases
Adolescent; Antibodies; Child; Continental Population Groups; Cytomegalovirus Infections/epidemiology*; Cytomegalovirus/isolation & purification*; Humans; Immunoglobulin G/blood; Logistic Models; Male; Multivariate Analysis; Risk Factors; Viral/blood
BACKGROUND: Congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) is a leading cause of disability, including sensorineural hearing loss, developmental delay, and mental retardation. Although the seroprevalence of CMV and associated exposure and behavioral risk factors have been reported in adolescent females, few data exist about males. METHODS: Serum samples were obtained from males aged 12-17 years from June 2006 through July 2007 in Cincinnati, Ohio; Galveston, Texas; and Nashville, Tennessee. The samples were tested for CMV immunoglobulin G antibody with a commercial assay. Participants completed a computer-assisted screening interview to assess 7 risk categories. RESULTS: A total of 397 adolescent males were screened, and 165 (47%) were seropositive. African American race, older age, and exposure to children = 3 years of age in the home were significant predictors of CMV infection in the univariate analysis. Hispanic ethnicity, group living situations, saliva-sharing behaviors, and intimate sexual contact were not associated with CMV infection. However, among those with a history of sexual contact, the number of life-time partners was associated with CMV. In the final multivariate model, CMV seroprevalence was significantly higher in African American subjects (odds ratio [OR], 1.93; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.27-2.95) and subjects = 14 years of age (OR, 1.1; 95% CI, 1.0-1.28). With each additional risk factor, males had a 1.6 times increased risk of CMV. CONCLUSIONS: CMV infections are common in adolescent males and are associated with African American race and increasing age. Further study is needed to understand these risk factors in preparation for a CMV vaccine targeted at both adolescent males and females.