ω-3 Long-Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Intake and 12-Y Incidence of Neovascular Age-Related Macular Degeneration and Central Geographic Atrophy: AREDS Report 30, a Prospective Cohort Study from the Age-Related Eye Disease Study

Publication Type
Journal Article
Year of Publication
2009
Authors
Sangiovanni, J; Agron, E; Meleth, A; Reed, G; Sperduto, R; Clemons, T; Chew, E; The Age-Related Eye Disease Study Research Group
Secondary
Am J Clin Nutr
Volume
90
Start Page
1601
Pagination
1601-1607
Date Published
12/2009
Keywords
Aged; Cohort Studies; Fatty Acids-Omega-3; Female; geographic atrophy; Incidence; Logistic Models; Macular Degeneration; Male; Middle Aged; Prospective Studies
Abstract
BACKGROUND: omega-3 (n-3) Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs) affect processes implicated in vascular and neural retinal pathogenesis and thus may influence the risk of developing age-related macular degeneration (AMD). OBJECTIVE: We investigated whether omega-3 LCPUFA intake was associated with a reduced likelihood of developing central geographic atrophy (CGA) and neovascular (NV) AMD. DESIGN: We undertook a nested cohort study within a multicenter phase 3 clinical trial, the Age-Related Eye Disease Study (AREDS), to study progression to advanced AMD in 1837 persons at moderate-to-high risk of this condition. The AREDS was designed to assess the clinical course, prognosis, risk factors, and nutrient-based treatments of AMD and ran from November 1992 to December 2005. We obtained baseline data on omega-3 LCPUFA intake with a validated food-frequency questionnaire. Trained fundus graders ascertained AMD status from annual stereoscopic color photographs by using standardized methods at a single reading center across a 12-y period. We applied multivariable repeated-measures logistic regression with the incorporation of generalized estimating equation methods, because this permitted determination of progression to outcome at each visit. RESULTS: Participants who reported the highest omega-3 LCPUFA intake (median: 0.11% of total energy intake) were 30% less likely than their peers to develop CGA and NV AMD. The respective odds ratios were 0.65 (95% CI: 0.45, 0.92; P